The obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)
During sleep, the person with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) underwent a narrowing of the pharynx associated with muscle relaxation. This leads to airflow more difficult and snoring because of the vibrations of the air. If the airway closes completely, the person temporarily stops breathing: it is an obstructive apnea.
Such an event can take 10 seconds or more. It can be frequent and occur up to several hundred times per night. Sleep is disturbed without the subject is necessarily consciousness (brief awakenings after each apnea).
The presence of excess tissue in the upper airway and anatomical deformations aggravate the consequences of these factors. During sleep, especially during paradoxical sleep, our body relaxes muscular tissue and as the tongue and soft palate for example, lose their rigidity. Because we usually sleep lying down, the gravity pushes these tissues to the back of the throat, which closes the upper airway.
Snoring - symptoms most commonly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) - occurs when the airway is partially obstructed. When air passes through this limited space, it vibrates the soft tissues of the throat, uvula and soft palate. These vibrations create sound we call snoring.
When completely block the airway, these tissues prevent the person from breathing it may cause asphyxiation. But he wakes up enough to regain control of his airway and breathing, then he falls asleep. In people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), this phenomenon can occur dozens or even hundreds of times a night, what they do not remember when they wake up.
Each obstruction deprives the body of oxygen and force to keep the carbon dioxide normally expel it at the end. Thus, the equilibrium is disturbed blood gases and body exposed to an environment "toxic". When the body "signals" it needs more oxygen, the brain wakes the sleeper, breathing resumes and the individual goes back to sleep until the next obstruction. These blockages also cause an increase in heart rate and blood pressure, and possibly weaken the responsiveness "automatic" from the body, which results in apneas and hypopneas more severe.
Micro-awakenings experienced by people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) also affect the quality of their sleep. These are the symptoms of sleep deprivation that motivate these people to consult their doctor. Symptoms such as excessive daytime sleepiness, lack of concentration, poor memory and even depression occur frequently in people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to a deterioration of the quality of life: excessive sleepiness, increased risk of accident, alteration in mood or depression, sexual dysfunction.