What is a sleeping disorder


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What is a sleeping disorder

Sleep disorders are divided into three main groups:

    
Dyssomnias: insomnia psychological origin (inability to sleep at night), altitude insomnia, insomnia from external (extrinsic), sleep disorders related to alcohol or drugs, narcolepsy. Insomnia is a common complaint in the elderly over 60 years.
We distinguish insomnia from the beginning of sleep, insomnia and sleep maintenance and insomnia wake up early. Temporary insomnia can last up to 3 weeks beyond, we speak of chronic insomnia;
    
Parasomnias are sleep disorders associated with nocturnal awakenings but without major disruption of sleep or impaired alertness during the day. It is mainly seen in children but may persist in adults are of a pathological nature. Parasomnias include sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep disorders associated with sleep, nocturnal bruxism and nocturnal enuresis (urinary incontinence during the night);
    
Sleep disturbances original psychiatric, neurological or other related diseases.

Causes and risk factors

Dyssomnias:

    
Chronic insomnia is psychological in origin due to emotional stress;
    
The extrinsic insomnia occurs as a result of a change in the sleep environment (hospital bed, noise, light, snoring partner) or after a major event (illness, loss of an individual close, occupational change, review);
    
Insomnia can occur during a stay at high altitude (due to the reduction of oxygen in the air);
    
Sleep disturbances may be related to the intake of alcohol or drugs. In some patients, the consumption of 5 cups of coffee may be responsible for sleep disorders. Insomnia may occur during the weaning period hypnotics;
    
Narcolepsy has a genetic origin.

Parasomnias:

    
The cause of sleepwalking is unknown;
    
Nocturnal bruxism (teeth grinding) begins at the end of the second decade and usually disappear spontaneously at the age of 40 years. Stress appears to play an important role in the genesis of this disorder;
    
The causes of secondary enuresis are emotional disorders, urinary tract infections, urinary tract malformations and epilepsy.

Sleep disturbances are frequently observed in mental disorders (depression, manic-depressive illness), neurological (migraine, cluster headache, Parkinson's disease, syndrome of Gilles de la Tourette and Huntington's disease) or other diseases (asthma, gastroesophageal reflux).

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